As we know, traditional Judaism - being focused on the responsibilities of this world - does not spend a lot of time on speculation about the world to come. There are some exceptions, though:
For it was taught: For a full [twelve months] the body is in existence and the soul ascends and descends; after twelve months the body ceases to exist and the soul ascends but descends nevermore.Unlike the Greek philosophies, Judiasm sees body and soul as linked. While the body still exists, the soul is tied to this world.
Our actions in this world prepare us of the world to come. The parable is told of a king who announces that a banquet will take place but does not say when. Some of the guests prepare themselves and wait at the gate, others say they will be ready when the time comes. When the banquet is suddenly announced, those who are prepared rejoice in the king's presence, while those who were unready are humiliated. Thus the famous statement of R. Eliezer:
We learnt elsewhere, R. Eliezer said: Repent one day before your death. His disciples asked him, Does then one know on what day he will die? Then all the more reason that he repent to-day, he replied, lest he die to-morrow, and thus his whole life is spent in repentance.
And Solomon too said in his wisdom, Let thy garments be always white; and let not thy head lack ointment. (Eccl. 9:8)